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Optimal management of bone mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease

Lundquist, Andrew L.; Nigwekar, Sagar U.

Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: March 2016 - Volume 25 - Issue 2 - p 120–126
doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000203
CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY: Edited by Bertrand Jaber

Purpose of review The review summarizes recent studies on chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorders, with a focus on new developments in disease management.

Recent findings The term chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder has come to describe an increasingly complex network of alterations in minerals and skeletal disorders that contribute to the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Clinical studies continue to suggest associations with clinical outcomes, yet current clinical trials have failed to support causality. Variability in practice exists as current guidelines for management of mineral bone disorders are often based on weak evidence. Recent studies implicate novel pathways for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials.

Summary Mineral bone disorders in chronic kidney disease arise from alterations in a number of molecules in an increasingly complex physiological network interconnecting bone and the cardiovascular system. Despite extensive associations with improved outcomes in a number of molecules, clinical trials have yet to prove causality and there is an absence of new therapies available to improve patient outcomes. Additional clinical trials that can incorporate the complexity of mineral bone disorders, and with the ability to intervene on more than one pathway, are needed to advance patient care.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Correspondence to Andrew L. Lundquist, MD, PhD, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 302, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel: +1 617 726 5050; e-mail:

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