Purpose of review
In this article, we review the recent findings regarding a new derivative of angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)], alamandine, and its receptor, the Mas-related G-coupled receptor type D (MrgD) with a special emphasis on its role and how it can be formed.
Over the last decade, there have been significant conceptual changes regarding the understanding of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). A cardioprotective axis has been elucidated by the discovery of the Mas receptor for the biologically active Ang-(1–7), and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that coverts Ang II into Ang-(1–7). In addition, several components of the system, such as Ang-(1–12), Angiotensin A (Ang A) and the newly discovered peptide, alamandine, have been identified. Alamandine is generated by catalysis of Ang A via ACE2 or directly from Ang-(1–7).
Alamandine is a vasoactive peptide with similar protective actions as Ang-(1–7) that acts through the MrgD and may represent another important counter-regulatory mechanism within the RAS.