Purpose of review Chemokines
are members of the largest group of chemotactic cytokines, and were the first shown to be able to engage specific subpopulations of inflammatory cells. Accordingly, our expanding knowledge in chemokine biology has enlarged our understanding of inflammatory cell interactions, lymphopoesis, specificity of cell recruitment, and a variety of human diseases. This review covers recent developments on chemokines
in renal diseases.
Intrinsic renal cells are capable of chemokine expression in vitro
and in vivo
, and the involved induction pathways are becoming increasingly defined. Differential chemokine expression during the time course of disease, followed by an infiltration of cells expressing the corresponding receptors has been described in animal models. Therapeutic efficacy of chemokine blockade has been demonstrated in a variety of disease models, including progressive interstitial fibrosis
. Chemokine receptors are differentially expressed and localized to specific parenchymal compartments in human renal diseases, as revealed by studies of renal biopsies, and some functional roles of specific chemokine/receptor interactions can be deduced through the correlation of patterns of expression, genetic variations and disease courses.
play an important role in renal inflammation. Although the treatment of patients with renal diseases using chemokine receptor
blocking agents has not yet reached clinical practice, a recent body of data indicates that human renal disease might be amenable to such approaches.