Review ArticleThe nephropathies of HIV infection: pathogenesis and treatmentKimmel, Paul L.Author Information Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037, USA; and Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD 20892, USA Correspondence to Paul L. Kimmel, MD, Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, 2150 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington DC 20037, USA. Tel: +1 202 994 4244; fax: +1 202 994 2972 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: March 2000 - Volume 9 - Issue 2 - p 117-122 Buy Abstract Several different renal syndromes have been reported in patients with HIV infection. Patient characteristics and a syndrome approach may help the clinician formulate a tentative diagnosis, but a renal biopsy is necessary to make a firm diagnosis in patients with chronic renal disease in the setting of HIV infection. The pathogenesis of the HIV nephropathies can teach us much about the pathophysiology of common renal problems such as IgA nephropathy, immune complex glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic renal disease. HIV-associated renal disease may be the result of the interaction of the expression of specific HIV genes in patients with distinct genetic susceptibilities to disease in particular environments. New treatment approaches have provided hope for patients with classic HIV-associated nephropathy. © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.