Purpose of review
Studies have shown the three-member paraoxonase (PON) multigene family to be involved in the development of a large variety of diseases with an inflammatory component. Environmental factors such as lifestyle-related factors differ widely between populations and it is important to consider that their impacts may be exerted through the epigenetic mechanisms, which connect genes, the environment and disease development and are a potential therapeutic avenue.
In the review period, very little was published on epigenetics of PON2 or PON3, mostly on their diagnostic value in cancer by measuring methylation levels of these genes. However, the picture is more promising with PON1. Here, several studies have linked the epigenetic regulation of PON1 to various metabolic processes and particularly to the development of several diseases, including stroke, heart disease, aortic valve stenosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Studies into the epigenetic regulation of the PON family are in their infancy. However, recent studies linking epigenetic regulation of PON1 to disease development will encourage further research and open up the possibility for new potential therapeutic interventions.