NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Majken K. JensenSoy consumption, cognitive function, and dementiaSzczerba, Edytaa; Koch, Manjab; Schlesinger, Sabrinaa Author Information aInstitute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf bInstitute of Epidemiology and Biobank PopGen, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel and Kiel University, Kiel, Germany Correspondence to Sabrina Schlesinger, Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Auf’m Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Lipidology 33(1):p 68-75, February 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000807 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review With the rising number of people living with dementia, the interest in modifiable risk factors including dietary intake for dementia is increasing. Although there is a growing body of evidence investigating soy's health effects, the direction and strength of the association between soy consumption and risk of dementia and cognitive decline are still uncertain. Thus, we aimed to review the evidence linking soy consumption to dementia and cognitive function. Recent findings Some studies showed that higher intake of total soy products was associated with a lower risk or prevalence of cognitive impairment. Some studies pointed to an inverse association between higher tofu consumption and cognitive function, whereas a higher intake of soybean was associated with better cognitive function. Summary Previous studies are scarce and have provided contradictory results. Soy is a high-protein alternative to red meat and processed meat. Further studies are needed to clarify the safety and potential preventive effects particularly in healthy populations before clinical disease manifestation and irreversible injury have occurred. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.