HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: Edited by Paul N. DurringtonDietary treatment to lower cholesterol and triglyceride and reduce cardiovascular riskWelty, Francine K.Author Information Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Francine K. Welty, MD, PhD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, SL 423, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Tel: +1 617 667 6010; fax: +1 617-667-6020; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Lipidology: August 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 4 - p 206-231 doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000689 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To provide an update on dietary measures to lower levels of LDL-C and triglyceride and reduce cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes. Recent findings Fifty-year follow-up in the Seven Countries Study confirmed that cholesterol levels correlate with saturated fat intake and all-cause mortality and age at death. In the PURE study, refined carbohydrate increased CVD risk whereas saturated fat did not despite increasing LDL-C levels; limitations are discussed. Reports on CVD risk with eggs provide conflicting results. Plant-based diets with healthful complex carbohydrates reduced CVD. The REDUCE-IT trial lowered triglyceride 21.6% and reduced CVD events 26.1% with an omega-3 fatty acid, An omega-3 fatty acid index at least 4% with EPA and docosahexaenoic acid prevented coronary plaque progression. A clinician guide to counsel patients on nutrition and heart healthy diets was recently published. Summary Based on the evidence, individuals should continue to minimize saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, eliminate trans-fat and increase fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and fish or other omega-3 fatty acids. Adhering to a Mediterranean diet is strongly recommended because of lowering CVD and total mortality. High-dose omega-3 fatty acids lower triglyceride, reduce CVD and prevent coronary plaque progression. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.