Purpose of review
Give an update on recent dietary intervention
studies that have used peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression analysis and/or metabolic profiling to understand how intake of polyunsaturated and saturated fat
affects and biological pathways linked to cardiovascular disease.
Several studies showed that intake of fish oil and vegetable oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids, reduced expression level of genes involved in inflammation. One intervention study showed that gene transcripts encoding genes involved inflammation and lipid metabolism increased after intake of polyunsaturated fat
(mainly omega-6 fatty acids) compared to saturated fat
. Additionally, using targeted metabolomics
, the concentrations of atherogenic lipoprotein particles and several metabolites including palmitoylcarnitine, myristoylcarnitine, and kynurenine were reduced after intake of polyunsaturated fat
compared to saturated fat
, whereas acetate and acetoacetate were increased. The use of targeted metabolomics
showed that overfeeding with polyunsaturated fat
reduced the serum concentration of ceramides, dihydroceramides, glucosylceramides, and lactosylceramides, whereas overfeeding with saturated fat
increased serum concentration of these metabolites.
The use of gene expression profiling and metabolomics
are promising tools to identify possible new biomarkers linking fat quality to cardiovascular disease risk.