Apolipoprotein CIII is a new player in diabetesJuntti-Berggren, Lisa; Berggren, Per-OlofCurrent Opinion in Lipidology: February 2017 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 27–31 doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000372 NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Majken K. Jensen Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Type-1 and type-2 diabetes are diseases with an increasing number of patients and a complex, multifactorial pathogenesis. Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII is increased in both types of diabetes and interventions preventing the increase have effects on the development of diabetes. Recent findings ApoCIII affects intracellular Ca2+-handling by activating voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. ApoCIII is produced within the pancreatic islets and it increases in parallel with the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Preventing the increase maintains a normal glucose tolerance as well as Ca2+-handling and no signs of inflammation can be seen in islets wherein the augmented local production of the apolipoprotein is absent. Summary ApoCIII has been found to interfere with both function and survival of the β-cell and thereby promote the development of diabetes. Increased levels of this apolipoprotein affects intracellular Ca2+-handling and insulin sensitivity, which finally results in impaired glucose homeostasis and diabetes. Interestingly, in a type-1 diabetes rat model lowering of apoCIII delays onset of diabetes. In type-2 diabetes insulin resistance within the pancreatic islets leads to a local increase in apoCIII that promotes inflammation and β-cell dysfunction. Hence, targeting apoCIII may constitute a novel pharmacological strategy to treat both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital L1:03, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden Correspondence to Dr Lisa Juntti-Berggren, The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital L1:03, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.