To re-evaluate the functions of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in atherosclerosis based upon recent findings from human genetics and pharmacological CETP manipulation.
CETP is involved in the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, a key step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). CETP inhibitors have been developed to raise serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and reduce cardiovascular events. However, outcome studies of three CETP inhibitors (torcetrapib, dalcetrapib and evacetrapib) were prematurely terminated because of increased mortality or futility despite marked increases in HDL-cholesterol and decreases in LDL-cholesterol except for dalcetrapib. Patients with CETP deficiency show remarkable changes in HDL and LDL and are sometimes accompanied by atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recent prospective epidemiological studies demonstrated atheroprotective roles of CETP. CETP inhibition induces formation of small dense LDL and possibly dysfunctional HDL and downregulates hepatic scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Therefore, CETP inhibitors may interrupt LDL receptor and SR-BI-mediated cholesterol delivery back to the liver.
For future drug development, the opposite strategy, namely enhancers of RCT via CETP and SR-BI activation as well as the inducers of apolipoprotein A-I or HDL production might be a better approach rather than delaying HDL metabolism by inhibiting a main stream of RCT in vivo.
aDepartment of Community Medicine
bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita
cRinku General Medical Center, Izumisano
dSumitomo Hospital, Kita-ku, Osaka, Japan
Correspondence to Shizuya Yamashita, MD, PhD, FAHA, FJCC, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka, Japan. Tel: +81 6 6879 3633; fax: +81 6 6879 3634; e-mail: email@example.com