Few studies have reviewed the impact of dietary fat and dietary patterns on lipoprotein metabolism. This review intends to provide perspective on this topic, while focusing primarily on the studies that assessed intravascular lipoprotein kinetics in humans using isotope methodologies.
Data suggest that dietary saturated fatty acids slow the clearance of LDL apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 and of apoA-I from the circulation, whereas possibly increasing also apoA-I production. Dietary trans fats reduce the clearance of LDL apoB-100, whereas increasing the clearance of apoA-I. n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake reduces the production of apoB-48-containing lipoproteins as well as of VLDL apoB-100 and increases their conversion into smaller lipoproteins. Medium-chain triglycerides appear to have no significant effect on lipoprotein kinetics. Finally, Mediterranean diet in the absence of weight loss reduces LDL cholesterol, primarily by enhancing its clearance from the circulation.
Kinetic studies with tracers allow a better appreciation of the impact of specific dietary factors on plasma lipid risk factors. However, additional studies are required to better document the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids, n−6 PUFAs, and of whole diets on lipoprotein metabolism.
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Correspondence to Benoît Lamarche, PhD, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, 2440, Boulevard Hochelaga, Québec City, QC, Canada G1V 0A6. Tel: +1 418 656 3527; fax: +1 418 656 5877; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org