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Dyslipidemia, malnutrition, inflammation, cardiovascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease

Peev, Vasil; Nayer, Ali; Contreras, Gabriel

doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000045
NUTRITION AND METABOLISM: Edited by Frank M. Sacks and Lawrence J. Appel
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Purpose of review Dyslipidemia, malnutrition and inflammation are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased mortality. The epidemiology of dyslipidemia and its interactions with malnutrition and inflammation in CKD patients have been the subject of much interest in the past decade. Recent clinical trials have explored the effects of statins on CVD specifically in CKD patients.

Recent findings Whereas the risk relationship between total cholesterol level and CVD morbidity and mortality is direct, strong and progressive in CKD patients without malnutrition and inflammation, it is inconsistent and often paradoxical in those with malnutrition and inflammation. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that statins reduce significantly the risk of CVD in CKD patients before the initiation of dialysis. However, the beneficial effect of statins in CKD patients on dialysis is uncertain. In CKD patients on dialysis, malnutrition and inflammation pose a higher risk for CVD than dyslipidemia.

Summary In CKD patients, the risk of CVD associated to dyslipidemia is complex and is modified by malnutrition and inflammation.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA

Correspondence to Gabriel Contreras, MD, MPH, Division of Nephrology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th street, Suite 817, Miami, FL 33136, USA. Tel: +1 305 243 3583; e-mail: gcontrer@med.miami.edu

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