Purpose of review
This review provides the rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It also provides an overview of the new antibiotics targeting CAP that have recently received approval by the regulatory agencies, and those antibiotics that are in the development pipeline.
CAP is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and carries a significant morbidity and risk of mortality. Increasing antibiotic resistance amongst the common bacterial pathogens associated with CAP, especially staphylococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae, has made the empiric treatment of this infection increasingly problematic. Moreover, failure of initial empiric therapy to cover the causative agents associated with CAP can be associated with worse clinical outcomes. There have been several antibiotics newly approved or in development for the treatment of CAP. These agents include delafloxacin, omadacycline, lefamulin, solithromycin, nemonoxacin, and ceftaroline. Their major advantages include activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and macrolide-resistant Strep. pneumoniae.
CAP continues to be an important infection because of its impact on patient outcomes especially in the elderly and immunocompromised hosts. The availability of new antibiotics offers an opportunity for enhanced empiric treatment of the antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens associated with CAP.