REVIEW: PDF OnlyMolecular diagnostic methods for pneumonia how can they be applied in practice?Kerneis, Solena,b,*; Visseaux, Benoita,c,*; Armand-Lefevre, Laurencea,d; Timsit, Jean-Françoisa,eAuthor Information aUniversité de Paris, IAME, INSERM bEquipe de Prévention du Risque Infectieux, AP-HP cLaboratory of Virology dBacteriology eMedical and Infectious Diseases ICU (MI2), AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France *S.K. and B.V. both contributed equally. Correspondence to Jean-François Timsit, MD, PhD, Medical and Infectious Diseases, ICU (MI2), AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, F-75018 Paris, France. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: December 31, 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000713 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Pneumonia represents a major burden in clinical practice. A rapid etiological diagnosis is critical for optimizing the antibiotic use. Owing to the variety of possible pathogens and the time needed for bacterial cultures or usual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, timely and precise diagnosis is a huge challenge. Several new rapid multiplex assays have been developed in the last decade to resolve these issues. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence on improvements and limitations of new rapid molecular assays for pneumonia. Recent findings Several rapid multiplex-PCR assays are commercially available for upper or lower respiratory tract samples, allowing detection of a wide range of respiratory viruses, bacteria, and, in some cases, of several antibiotic resistance genes. Clinical evaluations demonstrated their good correlation with gold-standard assays but their lack of exhaustiveness, especially for hospital-acquired pneumonia. Studies that evaluated their potential benefits on antibiotic use suffered from important weaknesses with conflicting and limited results. Summary New molecular assays may enable improvements in patient management and antibiotic use. Available studies highlight several benefits and the strong interrelations needed between microbiologists and physicians for their implementation and interpretation according to the clinical and epidemiological context. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.