NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. PerlMitigation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water: challenges for infection preventionKaul, Christina M.a; Chan, Justina,b; Phillips, Michael S.a,c Author Information aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine bDepartment of Infection Control, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York City Health and Hospitals cDepartment of Infection Prevention and Control, NYU Langone Health, New York City, New York, USA Correspondence to Michael S. Phillips, 545 First Avenue, SC-1 173, New York, NY 10016, USA. Tel: +1 646 501 0063; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 35(4):p 330-338, August 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000844 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria in water of healthcare systems. Despite improvement in identification techniques and emergence of infection prevention and control programs, nontuberculous mycobacteria remain present in hospital water systems, causing outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. Recent findings Waterborne outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacteria continue to affect hospitals. Improvements in methods of identification and investigation, including MALDI-TOF and whole genome sequencing with evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, have been used successfully in outbreak and pseudo-outbreak investigations. Recent studies have shown control of outbreaks in immunocompromised patients through the use of sterile water for consumption, as well as control of pseudo-outbreaks by using sterile water for procedures. Construction activities have been implicated in outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Water management programs are now required by the Joint Commission, which will likely improve water risk mitigation. Summary Improvement in detection and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria has led to increasing recognition of waterborne outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. Water management programs are of vital importance in infection prevention. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.