RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. NiedermanBiomarkers in sepsis: can they help improve patient outcome?Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxiaa; Poulakou, Garyfalliab; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.aAuthor Information a4th Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, ATTIKON University Hospital b3rd Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Sotiria Chest Hospital, Athens, Greece Correspondence to Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, MD, PhD, 4th Department of Internal Medicine, ATTIKON University Hospital, 1 Rimini Street, Athens 12462, Greece. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: April 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 2 - p 126-134 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000707 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Biomarkers, mainly procalcitonin, are commonly used in sepsis diagnosis, prognosis and treatment follow-up. This review summarizes the potential benefit of their use for the critically ill. Recent findings Increased clinical evidence from randomized clinical trials of biomarker-guided treatment suggests a trend for appropriate but short antimicrobial treatment for the critically ill. Procalcitonin (PCT) is the most studied biomarker; in the majority of randomized clinical trials, the use of a stopping rule of antibiotics on the day when PCT is below 80% from baseline or less than 0.5 ng/ml was proven effective to reduce length of antimicrobial treatment, antibiotic-associated adverse events and infectious complications like infections by multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile. Survival benefit was also noted. Summary Biomarkers, mainly PCT, may help improve sepsis outcome by restriction of injudicious antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.