HIV INFECTIONS AND AIDS: Edited by David DockrellConjunctival cancer in people living with HIVMuchengeti, Mazvitaa,b; Bohlius, Juliac,d; Dhokotera, Tafadzwa G.a,c,d,eAuthor Information aNational Cancer Registry, National Health Laboratory Service bDivision of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa cInstitute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern dSwiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel eGraduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Correspondence to Tafadzwa G. Dhokotera, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland. Tel: +41794283954; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2021December 16, 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 1 - p 1-7 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000705 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Historically, conjunctival cancer has been associated with HIV particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated as a potential causative agent without conclusive evidence. This review covers recent evidence of the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of conjunctival cancer in people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent findings HIV infection has been attributed to 33% of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in sub-Saharan Africa. Although clear evidence of the effect of immunodeficiency on conjunctival cancer risk has been demonstrated, the role of HPV on conjunctival cancer development is still unclear. Biomarkers such as the p16 protein are not always indicative of HPV infection. The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) might potentially be another infectious agent of interest in the development of conjunctival cancer. There is some evidence of increased conjunctival cancer recurrence post treatment as well as increased probability of metastasis in PLWH. Summary Immunodeficiency increases the risk of conjunctival cancer in PLWH. Symptomatic screening of conjunctival cancer in PLWH should be encouraged. Research on HPV involvement should remain a priority and EBV considered as another etiologic agent of interest. More studies on treatment modalities in PLWH should be considered. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.