New concepts in understanding latent tuberculosisDodd, Claire E.a,b; Schlesinger, Larry S.a,bCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases: June 2017 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 316–321 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000367 PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE: Edited by Dennis L. Stevens Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is a prominent global health threat because of the enormous reservoir of subclinical latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Current diagnostic approaches are limited in their ability to predict reactivation risk and LTBI is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. The present review summarizes recent advances in our ability to detect, treat and model LTBI as well as our understanding of bacterial physiology during latency. Recent findings T-cell subsets and circulating proteins have been identified which could serve as biomarkers for LTBI or indicators of reactivation risk. In addition, experimental and in-silico models have enabled discoveries regarding bacterial physiology during latency and the host immune response following infection with latent M.tb. Summary Despite recent advances, much more research is needed to bolster our ability to detect, implement treatment and model LTBI. The present work is crucial for the eradication of this global problem. aDepartment of Microbiology bDepartment of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA Correspondence to Dr Larry S. Schlesinger, The Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower, Room 798, 460 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Tel: +1 614 292 8789; fax: +1 614 292 9616; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.