URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: Edited by Suzanne E. GeerlingsGlobal epidemiology of urinary tract infectionsTandogdu, Zafera; Wagenlehner, Florian M.E.bAuthor Information aNorthern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon-Tyne, UK bClinic for Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany Correspondence to Florian M.E. Wagenlehner, Clinic of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology, Justus-Liebig-University, Rudolf-Buchheim-Str. 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2016 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 73-79 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000228 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Both in the community and hospital setting, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common. Initial appropriate empirical treatment requires a good knowledge of epidemiological data. In this review, the most recent global epidemiological data of UTIs have been summarized. Recent findings Community-associated UTI (CAUTI) prevalence is 0.7% and the main risk factors are age, history of UTI, sexual activity and diabetes. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli and resistance rates to common antibiotics depend very much on the geographical location. The lowest observed resistance was for fosfomycin (range: 0–2.9%), nitrofurantoin (range: 0–4.4%) and mecillinam (range: 0–4%). Healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) frequency among HCAIs is 12.9 (confidence interval: 10.2–16%), 19.6 and 24% in the United States, Europe and developing countries, respectively. In urology departments, the prevalence is 5.1%. Resistance to almost all antibiotics in HAUTIs is above 20% and there is a significant geographical variation. Community onset HAUTIs bacterial spectrum is similar to hospital onset HAUTIs and different from CAUTIs. Summary It is challenging to provide with an exact frequency of UTIs. Both CAUTI and HAUTI frequency, pathogen spectrum and resistance rates vary according to geographical setting. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.