SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: Edited by Karen E. RogstadTrichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular pathobiology and clinical considerationsHirt, Robert P.a; Sherrard, JackiebAuthor Information aInstitute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne bDepartment of Genitourinary Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK Correspondence to Robert P. Hirt, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK. Tel: +44 191 208 6963; e-mail: Robert.Hirt@ncl.ac.uk Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.co-infectiousdiseases.com). Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2015 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 72-79 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000128 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To integrate a selection of the most recent data on Trichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular cell biology and T. vaginalis interactions with the urogenital tract microbiota with trichomoniasis symptoms and clinical management. Recent findings Transcriptomics and proteomics datasets are accumulating, facilitating the identification and prioritization of key target genes to study T. vaginalis pathobiology. Proteins involved in host sensing and cytoskeletal plasticity during T. vaginalis amoeboid transformation were identified. T. vaginalis was shown to secrete exosomes and a macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like protein that both influence host–parasite interactions. T. vaginalis co-infections with Mycoplasma species and viruses were shown to modulate the inflammatory responses, whereas T. vaginalis interactions with various Lactobacillus species inhibit parasite interactions with human cells. T. vaginalis infections were also shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. A broader range of health sequelae is also becoming apparent. Diagnostics for both women and men based on the molecular approaches are being refined, in particular for men. Summary New developments in the molecular and cellular basis of T. vaginalis pathobiology combined with data on the urogenital tract microbiota and immunology have enriched our knowledge on human–microbe interactions that will contribute to increasing our capacity to prevent and treat T. vaginalis and other sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.