PAEDIATRIC AND NEONATAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Paul T. HeathUreaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and adverse pregnancy outcomesCapoccia, Rominaa; Greub, Gilbertb; Baud, Davida,bAuthor Information aMaterno-fetal and Obstetrics Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital bCenter for Research on Intracellular Bacteria, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Correspondence to David Baud, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Tel: +41 21 314 67 27; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: June 2013 - Volume 26 - Issue 3 - p 231-240 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328360db58 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chorioamnionitis, spontaneous preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes are significant contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and thus the need to treat these organisms. Recent findings We review here the recent data on the epidemiology of mycoplasmas and their clinical role during pregnancy. The association of these organisms with preterm labour has been suggested by many observational studies, but proof of causality remains limited. PCR is an excellent alternative to culture to detect the presence of these organisms, but culture allows antibiotic susceptibility testing. Whether antimicrobial treatment of mycoplasma-colonized pregnant patients can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes warrants further investigations. Summary The role of Mycoplasma spp. and U. urealyticum in adverse pregnancy outcomes is increasingly accepted. However, sole presence of these microorganisms in the vaginal flora might be insufficient to cause pathological issues, but their combination with other factors such as bacterial vaginosis or cervical incompetence may be additionally needed to induce preterm birth. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.