HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: Edited by Martin FisherHIV-1 superinfectionWaters, Laura; Smit, ErasmusAuthor Information aBrighton and Sussex University NHS Trust, Brighton bHPA Birmingham and Heart of England NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK Correspondence to Dr Laura Waters, Lawson Unit, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Eastern Road, Brighton BN2 5BE, UK. Tel: +44 1273 523085; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2012 - Volume 25 - Issue 1 - p 42-50 doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834ef5af Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review describes the nature and frequency of HIV-1 superinfection and provides advice regarding counselling of patients in accordance with national guidelines. Recent findings Recent studies have demonstrated conflicting results, from no superinfection to an incidence of over 18%. We discuss the difficulties comparing studies due to population and methodological differences. Summary HIV-infected individuals should be counselled that there is risk of superinfection at all stages of HIV, but this is unlikely to be clinically significant unless transmission of resistance occurs. The risk may be as high as the risk of new incident infection in the presence of on-going exposure. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.