Nosocomial and hospital-related infectionsEstablished and emerging waterborne nosocomial infectionsMerlani, Giorgio M.; Francioli, Patrick Author Information Department of Infectious Diseases, Vaudois University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland Correspondence to Professor Patrick Francioli, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Service des maladies infectieuses et Division autonome de médecine préventive hospitalière, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +21 314 02 50; fax: +21 314 02 62; e-mail: [email protected] Abbreviations CFU: colony forming units ICU: intensive care unit Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: August 2003 - Volume 16 - Issue 4 - p 343-347 Buy Abstract Purpose of review To assess the recent advances in the field of waterborne nosocomial infections. Recent findings In the last year, many publications have confirmed the importance of well known nosocomial waterborne pathogens such as Legionella spp. or other Gram-negative bacteria, especially non-fermentative bacilli. There have also been numerous reports of outbreaks or pseudo-outbreaks caused by Mycobacteria spp. The most intriguing information relates to the possibility that some fungi causing nosocomial infections may originate from the hospital water distribution system. Summary Despite progress in understanding the pathogenesis of nosocomial waterborne infections, outbreaks, pseudo-outbreaks and sporadic infections still occur. Targeted quality control of hospital water, updated procedures for the appropriate use of sterile and non-sterile water, coupled with surveillance constitute the cornerstones of prevention of these infections. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.