Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the most important global cause of mycobacterial disease in humans. The central roles of consistent delivery, adherence to therapy, and built-in audit of practice have recently received heavy emphasis in the treatment of M. tuberculosis, particularly in new guidelines from the World Health Organization. The management of mycobacterial disease in the context of HIV infection continues to pose problems, particularly in resource-poor settings. The most significant development for the clinical management of HIV-associated M. tuberculosis infection in the past year has been the establishment of the efficacy of isoniazid monotherapy as preventive therapy, after the publication of three new randomized, placebocontrolled trials.
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