Prophylactic regimens have, to a large extent, altered the spectrum of infections seen in the immunosuppressed patient. Although staphylococci and streptococci are still the most common bacterial isolates, recent emphasis is placed on infections caused by unusual Gram-positive bacilli. Further progress has been made in the association of human herpesvirus 6 with disease in the immunocompromised patient, particularly in the transplant setting. A number of unusual parasitic infections have been described in patients after bone marrow and solid organ transplantation. Progress has been made in the diagnosis of some of the more elusive pathogens associated with the immunocompromised host, but many organisms still remain difficult to detect.
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