Lessons learned from human HIV vaccine trialsPollara, Justina; Easterhoff, Davidb; Fouda, Genevieve G.bCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2017 - Volume 12 - Issue 3 - p 216–221 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000362 HIV AND NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR INDUCTION OF BROAD NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES FOLLOWING VACCINATION: Edited by Ralf Wagner Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is likely essential for development of a globally effective HIV vaccine. Unfortunately, human vaccine trials conducted to date have failed to elicit broad plasma neutralization of primary virus isolates. Despite this limitation, in-depth analysis of the vaccine-induced memory B-cell repertoire can provide valuable insights into the presence and function of subdominant B-cell responses, and identify initiation of antibody lineages that may be on a path towards development of neutralization breadth. Recent findings Characterization of the functional capabilities of monoclonal antibodies isolated from a HIV-1 vaccine trial with modest efficacy has revealed mechanisms by which non-neutralizing antibodies are presumed to have mediated protection. In addition, B-cell repertoire analysis has demonstrated that vaccine boosts shifted the HIV-specific B-cell repertoire, expanding pools of cells with long third heavy chain complementarity determining regions – a characteristic of some bNAb lineages. Summary Detailed analysis of memory B-cell repertoires and evaluating the effector functions of isolated monoclonal antibodies expands what we can learn from human vaccine trails, and may provide knowledge that can enable rational design of novel approaches to drive maturation of subdominant disfavored bNAb lineages. aDepartment of Surgery bDuke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Justin Pollara, PhD, Duke University Medical Center, Box 2926 Med Ctr Durham, NC 27710, USA. Tel: +1 919 684 4043; e-mail: email@example.com This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.