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Broadly neutralizing antibody and the HIV reservoir in acute HIV infection: a strategy toward HIV remission?

Ananworanich, Jintanata,b; McSteen, Briana,b; Robb, Merlin L.a,b

Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2015 - Volume 10 - Issue 3 - p 198–206
doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000144
ANTIBODIES FOR PREVENTION AND THERAPY: Edited by John R. Mascola and Richard A. Koup

Purpose of review Infection of long-lived CD4+ T cells is a major obstacle to HIV remission, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) instituted during acute HIV infection restricts HIV reservoir establishment. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be employed in conjunction with early ART as strategies toward HIV remission.

Recent findings Proof-of-concept studies in vitro and in animal models demonstrated bNAbs’ ability to block viral entry into cells, suppress viremia and reduce cell-associated viral DNA. Combination bNAbs were more effective than single bNAb in suppressing viremia. When bNAb was used with ART with or without combination latency reversing agents, it prevented viral rebound after ART interruption in at least half of the animals. In one study, macaques with low baseline viral load achieved viral remission even after the blood bNAb titer was no longer detected.

Summary The acute HIV infection period represents a unique opportunity to explore the use of bNAbs with ART to limit the reservoir seeding that may enhance the chance of HIV remission. This article discusses the effects of early ART and bNAbs on HIV reservoirs and proposes research strategies in acute HIV infection aiming at HIV reservoir reduction and HIV remission.

aU.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring

bHenry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Correspondence to Jintanat Ananworanich, MD, PhD, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, 6720A Rockledge Drive, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. Tel: +1 301 500 3949; fax: +1 301 500 3666; e-mail: Jananworanich@hivresearch.org

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