Epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and the CaribbeanDe Boni, Raquel; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, BeatrizCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: March 2014 - Volume 9 - Issue 2 - p 192–198 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000031 EPIDEMIOLOGY: CONCENTRATED EPIDEMICS: Edited by Chris Beyrer, Stefan D. Baral, and Patrick S. Sullivan Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to update HIV/AIDS Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean highlighting the concentrated aspect of epidemic in the region. Recent findings Among general population, HIV prevalence in Latin America is at stable levels (0.2–0.7%). The Caribbean still has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world (<0.1–3%), but incidences have declined around 49%. This is not the current situation for high-risk key populations; most incident cases occur among MSM. Available data on transgender women suggest that they are the most-at-risk group. Female sex workers still have a 12-fold the chance of being HIV positive compared with other women. IDU prevalence was revised to 0.45%, but non-IDU has been suggested as a mediator between sexual risk and HIV. Summary The increase in treatment coverage (mean is at 63%) resulted in modifications of HIV/AIDS epidemiology. New strategies to seek, test and link key populations to care are urgently needed and targeted interventions to prevent HIV expansion among them must be adopted. These strategies should consider the particular situation regarding social inequalities, discrimination and violence that pervade the HIV epidemic among key populations. Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas – FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Correspondence to Beatriz Grinsztejn, IPEC – FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil. E-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.