THERAPEUTIC VACCINES: Edited by Beatriz MotheHIV T-cell immunogen design and deliveryBrander, Christiana,b,c; Hartigan-O’Connor, Dennisd,e,f Author Information aIrsicaixa – AIDS Research Institute, Badalona bUniversitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVic-UCC), Vic cInstitució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain dCalifornia National Primate Research Center eDepartment in Medical Microbiology and Immunology fDivision of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA Correspondence to Christian Brander, PhD, Laboratori de Retrovirologia, Fundació irsiCaixa, ICREA Senior Research Professor, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra del Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Tel: +34934656374 (ext. 166); e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 17(6):p 333-337, November 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000765 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of the review Not all T-cell responses against HIV are created equally and responses of certain epitope specificities have been associated with superior control of infection. These insights have spurred the development of a wide range of immunogen sequences, each with particular advantages and limitations. Recent findings We review some of the most advanced designs that have reached or are close to reaching human clinical trials, with a special focus on T-cell immunogen developed for therapeutic use. We also touch upon the importance of how immunogens are delivered and point out the lamentable fact that there is essentially no alignment between different designs and vaccine regimens, which is a major hindrance to accelerated advances in the field. Summary The design of an immunogen able to induce T-cell responses of adequate specificity and functionality is subject of a wide range of preclinical and clinical studies. Few designs have shown promise to date, but emerging data highlight the critical contribution of specificity to effective antiviral activity in vivo. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.