HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Constantinos PetrovasVisualization of HIV-1 reservoir: an imaging perspectiveChapon, Catherinea; Moysi, Eirinib; Naninck, Thibauta; Mayet, Celinea; Petrovas, Constantinosc Author Information aCenter for Immunology of Viral, Auto-immune, Hematological and Bacterial Diseases (IMVA-HB/IDMIT), Université Paris-Saclay, INSERM, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France bTissue Analysis Core, Immunology Laboratory, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA cDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital and Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland Correspondence to Dr Constantinos Petrovas, PhD, Institute of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital and Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland. Tel: +0213 147 179; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 16(4):p 232-239, July 2021. | DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000691 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The persistence of HIV-1-infected cells, despite the introduction of the combinatorial antiretroviral therapy, is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Understanding the nature of HIV reservoir will lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the functional cure or eradication of the virus. In this review, we will update the recent development in imaging applications toward HIV-1/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral reservoirs research and highlight some of their limitations. Recent findings CD4 T cells are the primary target of HIV-1/SIV and the predominant site for productive and latent reservoirs. This viral reservoir preferentially resides in lymphoid compartments that are difficult to access, which renders sampling and measurements problematical and a hurdle for understanding HIV-1 pathogenicity. Novel noninvasive technologies are needed to circumvent this and urgently help to find a cure for HIV-1. Recent technological advancements have had a significant impact on the development of imaging methodologies allowing the visualization of relevant biomarkers with high resolution and analytical capacity. Such methodologies have provided insights into our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in health and disease. Summary Imaging of the HIV-1 reservoir can provide significant insights for the nature (cell types), spatial distribution, and the role of the tissue microenvironment for its in vivo dynamics and potentially lead to novel targets for the virus elimination. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.