COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui ZhangEarly diagnosis and population prevention of coronavirus disease 2019Su, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Shi-Yin; Li, Ting-Dong; Xia, Ning-ShaoAuthor Information State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Strait Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedicine and Pharmaceutics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China Correspondence to Ning-Shao Xia, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Strait Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedicine and Pharmaceutics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang’an South Road, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China. Tel: +86 0592 2188393; fax: +86 0592 2181258; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: November 2020 - Volume 15 - Issue 6 - p 345-350 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000649 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To discuss the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by nucleic acid and antibody testing as well as its contribution to mitigating the spread of coronavirus disease 2019. Recent findings Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the firstly developed and most widely used diagnostic technique for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA NAT assays is always unsatisfactory, mainly due to insufficient viral RNA in samples, especially when upper respiratory samples were used. Compared with NAT assays, serological tests are more convenient and less dependent on the quality of sample collection. But the sensitivity of antibody assays varies largely to test samples collected at different time after onset of symptoms. The diagnostic sensitivity can be significantly improved by combination of RNA and antibody testing. Due to the lack of effective drugs and vaccines, population prevention results mainly from timely triage and quarantine of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Thus, extensive testing with NAT and antibody assays simultaneously is very important to constrain coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. Summary Viral RNA testing combining with serological testing could improve the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has great value for clinical practice and public health. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.