HIV SYNDEMICS: Edited by Kenneth H. MayerSyndemics of HIV with mental illness and other noncommunicable diseases: a research agenda to address the gap between syndemic theory and current research practiceBhardwaj, Anvitaa; Kohrt, Brandon A.bAuthor Information aBloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Global Mental Health, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA Correspondence to Brandon A. Kohrt, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The George Washington University, 2120 l St NW Suite 600, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Tel: +1 202 741 2896; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: July 2020 - Volume 15 - Issue 4 - p 226-231 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000627 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this article is to summarize the status of syndemic research on HIV and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) to identify opportunities for improving research to benefit prevention and treatment of NCDs among persons living with HIV. Recent findings The majority of research on syndemics of HIV and NCDs has been conducted in the United States, with few studies in low and middle-income countries. The substance abuse, violence, and AIDS syndemic model was used by a quarter of the studies, however, most other studies failed to outline a syndemic model for interpreting their findings. Mental illnesses were the dominant NCD (15 out of 16 studies), and only one study explored physical health NCDs. Summary Recent studies referring to syndemics of HIV and NCDs often do not meet criteria for a syndemic framework. Future research needs to assure minimum criteria are met: articulation of two or more health conditions, descriptions of social/geographic context that impact the relationship among these conditions, a syndemic model with proposed mechanisms for interaction in the particular social/geographic context, and a population or context without the observed syndemic. Expanding the current syndemic research beyond the United States context and beyond mental illness also would enrich the field. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.