Purpose of review
The age of people with HIV
) continues to rise, and yet older people have tended to be under-represented or excluded from premarketing studies of antiretroviral therapy
(ART). In this review, we highlight special considerations for the use of ART in older people with HIV
, with a focus on toxicities associated with specific antiretroviral agents or drug classes as well as key research questions moving forward.
Like all people with HIV
, older people with HIV
should be started on ART as soon as possible, regardless of CD4 count, and with a regimen that includes an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Important toxicities to consider when choosing an ART regimen include bone and renal effects related to tenofovir, weight gain related to INSTIs and tenofovir alafenamide, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric toxicities related to efavirenz, and increased cardiovascular risk associated with abacavir and boosted protease inhibitors. With the ongoing importance of INSTIs as a component of preferred ART regimens, further characterization of INSTI-related weight gain is a critical current research priority in understanding ART toxicity.
There are multiple potential toxicities of ART to consider when selecting a regimen for older people. Specific agents or drug classes have been implicated in adverse bone or renal effects, weight gain, neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive effects, and cardiovascular risk.