LONG ACTING ART FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION: Edited by Martin MarkowitzIslatravir for the treatment and prevention of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1Markowitz, Martina; Grobler, Jay A.bAuthor Information aThe Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, An Affiliate of the Rockefeller University, New York, New York. bMerck and Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA Correspondence to Martin Markowitz, 455 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016. Tel: +1 212 448 5020; fax: +1 212 725 1126; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: January 2020 - Volume 15 - Issue 1 - p 27-32 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000599 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To discuss the potential role of islatravir (ISL), a novel reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor, in the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recent findings Islatravir (4′-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine, MK-8591) is a long-acting first-in-class nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor with the potential for versatile dosing routes and dosing intervals. It demonstrated robust antiviral activity when dosed once daily and once weekly in HIV-1-infected individuals and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In clinical trials of ISL in combination with doravirine and lamivudine, daily oral administration resulted in high levels of virologic suppression in HIV-infected individuals. In preclinical studies, ISL dosed orally once-weekly as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), protected rhesus macaques against SHIV infection via the mucosal route in the low-dose rectal challenge model. Most recently, data in healthy HIV-1-uninfected individuals demonstrated the feasibility of formulating of ISL as an implant. In these studies, levels of intracellular ISL-triphosphate were consistent with the potential for a once-yearly implantable administration of ISL as PrEP. Summary Islatravir is a promising new agent for both the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.