T-CELLS IN HIV INFECTION: Edited by Mathias Lichterfeld and Tony KelleherPerturbation of mucosal-associated invariant T cells and iNKT cells in HIV infectionJuno, Jennifer A.a,*; Phetsouphanh, Chansavathb,*; Klenerman, Paulb,c; Kent, Stephen J.a,d,e Author Information aDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia bNuffield Department of Medicine and Translational Gastroenterology Unit, The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford cNIHR Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK dARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, The University of Melbourne eMelbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Hospital, Monash University Central Clinical School, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Correspondence to Stephen J. Kent, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunology, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 14(2):p 77-84, March 2019. | DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000526 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To analyze the possible role that the ‘unconventional’ T-cell populations mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT) and iNKT cells play during HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment. Recent findings A substantial body of evidence now demonstrates that both MAIT and iNKT cells are depleted in blood during HIV infection. The depletion and dysfunction of MAIT and iNKT cells are only partially restored by suppressive ART, potentially contributing to HIV-related comorbidities. Summary The deficiency and dysfunction of MAIT and iNKT T-cell subsets likely impact on immunity to important coinfections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of research on restoring these unconventional T cells during HIV infection. Future studies in this field should address the challenge of studying tissue-resident cells, particularly in the gut, and better defining the determinants of MAIT/iNKT cell dysfunction. Such studies could have a significant impact on improving the immune function of HIV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.