CREATING DEMAND FOR HIV PRODUCTS, DRUGS AND DIAGNOSTICS: Edited by David Ripin and Sharonann LynchDemanding an end to tuberculosis treatment of tuberculosis infection among persons living with and without HIVFargher, Justinea; Reuter, Anjaa; Furin, JenniferbAuthor Information aMédecins Sans Frontières, Khayeltisha, South Africa bHarvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Jennifer Furin, Harvard Medical School, 641 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Tel: +1 617 432 1707; fax: +1 617 432 2565; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: January 2019 - Volume 14 - Issue 1 - p 21-27 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000517 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review More than two billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and few of them are ever offered therapy in spite of such treatment being associated with reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the current recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of TB infection (or what is commonly referred to as ‘prophylaxis’ or ‘preventive therapy’ of latent TB) and discusses barriers to implementation that have led to low demand for this life-saving therapeutic intervention. Recent findings Treatment of infection for both TB and drug-resistant TB is well tolerated and effective, and several new, shorter regimens – including rfiapenitine-based regimens of 1 month and 12 weeks duration – have been shown to be effective. Not all persons infected with TB go on to develop disease and the risk is the highest in the first 2 years after infection. Given this, additional work is needed to better identify those at the highest risk of developing active TB. Summary Practitioners should offer newer, shorter regimens to persons who are infected with TB and at high risk of developing disease, including people living with HIV and household contacts of people living with TB who are age 5 years and under. This includes individuals who have been exposed to drug-resistant forms of disease. Socioeconomic risk factors may play a key role in the development of TB disease and should also be addressed. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.