Prospects for a vaccine to prevent HIV-related tuberculosisNemes, Elisa; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hatherill, MarkCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: November 2018 - Volume 13 - Issue 6 - p 522–527 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000496 TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV: Edited by Richard E. Chaisson and Haileyesus Getahun Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review To outline the need for a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine; challenges for induction of vaccine-mediated protection in HIV-infected persons; and recent advances in clinical development. Recent findings HIV has a detrimental effect on T-cell function, polarization and differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific T cells, Mtb antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and leads to B-cell and antibody-response deficiencies. Previous observations of protection against TB disease in HIV-infected persons by Mycobacterium obuense suggest that an effective vaccine against HIV-related TB is feasible. Studies of inactivated mycobacterial, viral-vectored and protein subunit vaccines reported lower immune responses in HIV-infected relative to HIV-uninfected individuals, which were only partially restored with antiretroviral therapy. Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) revaccination of HIV-uninfected adolescents recently showed moderate efficacy against sustained Mtb infection, but live mycobacterial vaccines have an unfavorable risk profile for HIV-infected persons. Ongoing trials of inactivated mycobacterial and protein-subunit vaccines in HIV-uninfected, Mtb-infected adults may be more relevant for protection of HIV-infected populations in TB endemic countries. Summary New TB vaccine candidates have potential to protect against HIV-related TB, through vaccination prior to or after HIV acquisition, but this potential may only be realized after efficacy is demonstrated in HIV-uninfected populations, with or without Mtb infection. South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease & Molecular Medicine and Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Correspondence to Mark Hatherill, Room S2.11, South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Wernher and Beit South Building, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa. Tel +27 21 406 6791; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.