Purpose of review
In the past few years, tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the infectious disease with the highest global mortality. Successful management of this syndemic will require improved diagnostic tests, shorter preventive therapies, and more effective treatments, particularly in light of drug-resistant TB.
Results from several major studies have been published or presented recently, including the development of a more sensitive rapid, molecular assay for TB; several new symptom-based screening tools; use of a 1-month regimen for TB prevention; the results of early vs. delayed TB preventive therapy for pregnant women; newer drugs and regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy studies of new HIV drugs in combination with TB treatment. We reviewed each of these topic areas and summarize relevant findings for the management of TB and HIV co-infection.
Moving forward, as new treatment regimes for HIV or TB are developed, consideration of the HIV–TB co-infected patient must figure prominently, both when determining the diagnostic tests employed and to assess properly the drug–drug and drug–disease interactions that influence dosing, safety, and response.