ADOLESCENTS AND HIV: Edited by Mary-Ann Davies and Elizabeth HamlynYouth-friendly services and differentiated models of care are needed to improve outcomes for young people living with HIVReif, Lindsey K.a,b; McNairy, Margaret L.a,c; Lamb, Matthew R.b,d; Fayorsey, Rubyd; Elul, BatyabAuthor Information aCenter for Global Health, Weill Cornell Medical College bDepartment of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University cDivision of Hospital Medicine, General Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College dICAP at Columbia University, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to Lindsey K. Reif, Center for Global Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, 402 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA. Tel: +1 646 962 8140; fax: +1 646 962 0285; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2018 - Volume 13 - Issue 3 - p 249-256 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000454 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Outcomes among young people living with HIV (YPLWH) remain disturbingly poor. We summarize recent research on youth-friendly services (YFS) and adolescent-specific differentiated care models, which may improve outcomes across the HIV care continuum for this vulnerable population. We further emphasize unique complexities that characterize the transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood which must be considered when caring for YPLWH. Recent findings Studies suggest that YFS may improve outcomes in some but not all steps of the HIV care continuum. However, generalizability is compromised by the limited numbers of studies, frequent use of nonequivalent comparison groups, small sample sizes and/or short follow-up. Reproducibility and scale-up are further hindered by lack of insufficient details on operational aspects of YFS, an effective minimum package of YFS and contextual factors that may facilitate adoption of YFS. Differentiated models of care for YPLWH are in very early stages of development with positive preliminary outcomes, but most pilot models focus only on stable patients on antiretroviral therapy. Summary YFS and adolescent-specific differentiated models of care are needed to improve health outcomes among YPLWH, but scale-up should be guided by rigorous research and address the unique complexities that characterize the vulnerable period of adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.