ADOLESCENTS AND HIV: Edited by Mary-Ann Davies and Elizabeth HamlynRetention and adherence global challenges for the long-term care of adolescents and young adults living with HIVEnane, Leslie A.a,b; Vreeman, Rachel C.a,b,c; Foster, CarolinedAuthor Information aDepartment of Pediatrics, The Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA bAcademic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) cDepartment of Child Health and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya dDepartments of GUM/HIV and Pediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom Correspondence to Leslie A. Enane, MD, MS, 1044 W. Walnut St, Rm 402A, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Tel: +1 317 274 8940; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2018 - Volume 13 - Issue 3 - p 212-219 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000459 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Adolescents living with HIV are the only age group with increasing HIV mortality at a time of global scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). As a ‘treat all’ strategy is implemented worldwide, it is critically important to optimize retention and adherence for this vulnerable group. Recent findings Adolescents and young adults living with HIV have poorer outcomes when compared with adults at each stage of the HIV care cascade, irrespective of income setting. Rates of viral suppression are lowest for adolescents living with HIV, and adherence to ART remains an enormous challenge. High-quality studies of interventions to improve linkage to, and retention in, care on suppressive ART are starkly lacking for adolescents and young adults living with HIV across the globe. However, examples of good practice are beginning to emerge but require large-scale implementation studies with outcome data disaggregated by age, route of infection, and income setting, and include young pregnant women and key populations groups. Summary There is an urgent need for evidence-based interventions addressing gaps in the adolescent HIV care cascade, including supporting retention in care and adherence to ART. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.