Purpose of review
Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD).
Persistent immune activation and inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of AVD, highlighting the importance of treatment adherence and maintenance of viral suppression, and the need to evaluate interventions to decrease risk. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and trials of vitamin D supplementation have been the focus of recent studies of CBD with limited studies to date evaluating tenofovir alafenamide as an alternative to TDF for decreasing risk for bone and renal adverse effects among HIV-infected adolescents. Recent studies of CKD have focused primarily on estimating prevalence in different settings whereas studies of CLD are limited.
As perinatally HIV-infected children age into adolescence and adulthood with effective long-term ART, it is necessary to continue to evaluate their risks for noninfectious comorbidities and complications, understand mechanisms underlying their risks, and identify and evaluate interventions specifically in this population.