ADOLESCENTS AND HIV: Edited by Mary-Ann Davies and Elizabeth HamlynCancer in adolescents and young adults living with HIVBohlius, Juliaa; Foster, Carolineb; Naidu, Gitac; Sengayi, Mazvitad,e; Turkova, Annaf,gAuthor Information aInstitute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland b900 and Family Clinics, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK cPaediatric Haematology Oncology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg dNational Cancer Registry, National Health Laboratory Service eSchool of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa fMRC CTU, University College London Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology gPaediatric infectious Diseases Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London UK Correspondence to Dr Anna Turkova, MRCPCH, MSc, MRC CTU, University College London Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology, 90 High Holborn, London, UK. Tel: +442076704658; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2018 - Volume 13 - Issue 3 - p 196-203 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000460 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Adults living with HIV have an increased risk of malignancy yet there is little data for adolescents and young adults. We reviewed recently published cancer epidemiology, treatment, and outcome data for adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALHIV) aged 10 to less than 25 years between 2016 and 2017. Recent findings AYALHIV are at increased risk of developing cancer compared to their uninfected peers. Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occur most frequently with variation by geographical region. Increased cancer risk is associated with HIV-related immunosuppression and coinfection with oncogenic viruses. Published data, particularly on posttreatment outcomes, remain limited and analyses are hampered by lack of data disaggregation by age and route of HIV transmission. Summary Although data are sparse, the increased cancer risk for AYALHIV is the cause for concern and must be modified by improving global access and uptake of antiretroviral therapy, human papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, screening for hepatitis B and C infection, and optimized cancer screening programs. Education aimed at reducing traditional modifiable cancer risk factors should be embedded within multidisciplinary services for AYALHIV. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.