THE MICROBIOME IN HIV: Edited by Alan L. Landay, James G. Kublin and Seema N. DesaiMicrobial translocation translating simian immunodeficiency virus to HIVOrtiz, Alexandra M.; Brenchley, Jason M.Author Information Laboratory of Parasitology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Jason M. Brenchley, PhD, 4 Memorial Drive, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Tel: +1 301 496 1498; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: January 2018 - Volume 13 - Issue 1 - p 15-21 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000424 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The article describes recent advances in understanding the causes and consequences of microbial translocation in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. Recent findings Persistent microbial translocation contributes to aberrant immune activation in immunodeficiency lentiviral infections and thereby, pathogenesis and mortality. Efforts to delineate the circumstances surrounding translocation have benefited from use of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and highlight the overwhelming immunologic diversion caused by translocating microbes. The use of therapeutics aimed at reducing microbial translocation show promise and will benefit from continued research into the mechanisms that promote systemic microbial dissemination in treated and untreated infections. Summary Insights into the source and identity of translocating microbes in lentiviral infections continue to enhance the development of adjunct therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.