CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN HIV INFECTED PERSONS: Edited by Franck Boccara and Cameron J. HollowayHIV and myocarditisNtusi, Ntobeko A.B.a,b,c Author Information aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital bThe Cape Universities Body Imaging Centre cThe Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Correspondence to Ntobeko A.B. Ntusi, Head and Chair, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Main Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa. Tel: +27 214066200; fax: +27 214486815; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: November 2017 - Volume 12 - Issue 6 - p 561-565 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000416 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to review the literature on HIV and myocarditis and HIV-associated heart failure. Recent findings Currently, 17 million people are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. There is a decrease in mortality from HIV in the last decade with increased survival in those receiving ART. HIV-associated cardiac failure is on the increase, with more cases of diastolic dysfunction reported in the ART era. The pathophysiology of HIV-associated myocarditis is multifactorial. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), through tissue characterization, demonstrates increased native T1 values which reflect both increased myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in HIV infection. Summary HIV-associated myocarditis is common and may be an important cause of HIV-associated cardiac failure. CMR is an important imaging modality for the study of myocardial inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.