SURVIVAL IN THE MODERN ART ERA: Edited by Margaret May and Dominique CostagliolaMortality and survival patterns of people living with HIV-2Tchounga, Boris; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Balestre, Eric; Dabis, FrançoisAuthor Information aUniversité de Bordeaux, ISPED, Centre INSERM U1219-Bordeaux Population Health bProgramme PACCI, site de recherche ANRS, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire cDépartement de Santé Publique, Université de Lomé, Lomé-Togo Correspondence to Professor François Dabis, MD, PhD, Centre de Recherche INSERM U1219, Institut de Santé Publique, Epidémiologie et Développement (ISPED), Université de Bordeaux, ISPED, CS61292, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. Tel: +33 0 5 57 57 14 36; e-mail: Francois.Dabis@u-bordeaux.fr Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: September 2016 - Volume 11 - Issue 5 - p 537-544 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000299 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review People living with HIV-2 infected usually initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an advanced period in the course of their infection after a long asymptomatic period characterized by high CD4 cell count and thus at a relatively advanced age. In the new international context of early and universal ART initiation, the aim was to review survival patterns among HIV-2 infected patients, either on ART or not. Recent findings Very few reports were published on mortality in people living with HIV-2 during the last 5 years. People living with HIV-2 experience high mortality rates although lower than people living with HIV-1 before ART initiation. They seem to survive longer regardless of the conditions of ART use. Mortality is associated with late presentation, male sex, CD4 cell count less than 500 cell/μl, high plasma viral load, hemoglobin rate less than 8 g/dl and body mass index less than 18 kg/m2. Summary People living with HIV-2 initiate ART later than HIV-1 and HIV duals, resulting in higher disease progression and mortality rate. The clinical management of HIV-2 infected patients should now include early diagnosis and treatment initiation as per international guidelines. Further research needs to explore the ‘what to start’ question and document specific causes of death in people living with HIV-2 and enrolled in care in Africa. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.