STRATEGIES FOR TARGETING RESIDUAL HIV INFECTION: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Nicolas ChomontPreclinical shock strategies to reactivate latent HIV-1 an updateDarcis, Gilles; Van Driessche, Benoît; Van Lint, CarineAuthor Information aService of Molecular Virology, Département de Biologie Moléculaire (DBM), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Gosselies, Belgium bService des Maladies Infectieuses, Université de Liège, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium Correspondence to Carine Van Lint, Service of Molecular Virology, Département de Biologie Moléculaire (DBM), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet 12, 6041 Gosselies, Belgium. E-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: July 2016 - Volume 11 - Issue 4 - p 388-393 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000288 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The ‘shock and kill’ strategy consists of activating HIV-1 expression to allow latently infected cells to die from viral cytopathic effects or host cytolytic immune effectors. This strategy relies on small molecules, called latency reversing agents, which activate HIV transcription. Recent findings Several mechanisms operating at the transcriptional level are involved in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency, including the absence of crucial inducible host transcription factors, epigenetic silencing, and the sequestration of the positive transcription elongation factor B. Progresses made toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 transcriptional repression have led to the identification of latency reversing agents that activate HIV transcription, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors or protein kinase C agonists. Multiple studies have recently pointed interesting ways to optimize the shock strategy by using combinations of latency reversing agents with an appropriate time schedule. Summary Combining latency reversing agents appears as one potential strategy for therapy against HIV-1 latency. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.