IMMUNE ACTIVATION: Edited by Irini Sereti and Marcus AltfeldMicrobial translocation and microbiome dysbiosis in HIV-associated immune activationZevin, Alexander S.; McKinnon, Lyle; Burgener, Adam; Klatt, Nichole R.Author Information aDepartment of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington bWashington National Primate Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA cCentre for the AIDS Programme of Research (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa dDepartment of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba eNational Laboratory for HIV Immunology, JC Wilt Infectious Disease Research Center, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada fDepartment of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska, Sweden Correspondence to Nichole R. Klatt, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. Tel: +1 206 221 0254; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: March 2016 - Volume 11 - Issue 2 - p 182-190 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000234 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This article describes the mechanisms and consequences of both microbial translocation and microbial dysbiosis in HIV infection. Recent findings Microbes in HIV are likely playing a large role in contributing to HIV pathogenesis, morbidities and mortality. Two major disruptions to microbial systems in HIV infection include microbial translocation and microbiome dysbiosis. Microbial translocation occurs when the bacteria (or bacterial products) that should be in the lumen of the intestine translocate across the tight epithelial barrier into systemic circulation, where they contribute to inflammation and pathogenesis. This is associated with poorer health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. In addition, microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract are also altered after HIV infection, resulting in microbiome dysbiosis, which further exacerbates microbial translocation, epithelial barrier disruption, inflammation and mucosal immune functioning. Summary Altered microbial regulation in HIV infection can lead to poor health outcomes, and understanding the mechanisms underlying microbial dysbiosis and translocation may result in novel pathways for therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.