ANTIBODIES FOR PREVENTION AND THERAPY: Edited by John R. Mascola and Richard A. KoupTowards an HIV cure based on targeted killing of infected cells different approaches against acute versus chronic infectionDey, Barna; Berger, Edward A.Author Information Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Edward A. Berger, 33 North Drive, Room 1E19A, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Tel: +1 301 402 2481; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: May 2015 - Volume 10 - Issue 3 - p 207-213 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000151 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Current regimens of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) offer effective control of HIV infection, with maintenance of immune health and near-normal life expectancy. What will it take to progress beyond the status quo, whereby infectious virus can be eradicated (a ‘sterilizing cure’) or fully controlled without the need for ongoing cART (a ‘functional cure’)? Recent findings On the basis of therapeutic advances in the cancer field, we propose that targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill HIV-infected cells represents a logical complement to cART for achieving an HIV cure. This concept is based on the fact that cART effectively blocks replication of the virus, but does not eliminate cells that are already infected; targeted cytotoxic therapy would contribute precisely this missing component. We suggest that different modalities are suited for curing primary acute versus established chronic infection. For acute infection, relatively short-acting potent agents such as recombinant immunotoxins might prove sufficient for HIV eradication, whereas for chronic infection, a long-lasting (lifelong?) modality is required to maintain full virus control, as might be achieved with genetically modified autologous T cells. Summary We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy, whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong cART. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.