GENOMICS IN HIV INFECTION: Edited by Amalio TelentiEvolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factorsPyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, AntonioAuthor Information aUniversity of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland bGenomic Medicine, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, California, USA cVital-IT group, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland Correspondence to Antonio Rausell, Vital-IT group, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Quartier Sorge - Batiment Genopode, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Tel: +41 21 692 40 31; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: March 2015 - Volume 10 - Issue 2 - p 79-83 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000138 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recent findings Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Summary Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies – offense or defence – as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.