Impact of earlier combination antiretroviral therapy on outcomes in childrenCotton, Mark F.; Rabie, HelenaCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: January 2015 - Volume 10 - Issue 1 - p 12–17 doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000117 THE CASE FOR EARLY ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY TOWARDS A CURE OF HIV INFECTION: Edited by John W. Mellors and Jintanat Ananworanich Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants below 12 weeks of age reduces morbidity and mortality. A recent report of transient HIV remission in a child beginning ART from the second day of life has focused attention on very early therapy in the first days of life. Recent findings In the randomized children with HIV, early antiretroviral limited ART beginning at a median of 7.4 weeks of age lowered mortality and disease progression significantly compared with deferred ART beginning at a median of 21 weeks on study. In high-burden settings, infants initiating ART appear sicker than in children with HIV early antiretroviral and start at a later age. Many could be diagnosed on the first day of life. There are still programmatic obstacles to early diagnosis and initiation of ART in high-burden settings. There is growing but insufficient information on ART dosages in newborn infants. Summary There is now increased focus on initiating ART as postexposure prophylaxis in newborn infants at high risk of vertical transmission in the hope of limiting morbidity and dissemination of the virus. Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa Correspondence to Professor Mark F. Cotton, FAM-CRU/J8, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa. Tel: +27 21 938 4298; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2015 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.